Any given trial is inherently evidence based, which means that it is a trial in which the issue at stake in the trial will be determined based on the evidence introduced into the trial in question. Such evidence might take the form of testimony from witnesses, or it might take the form of actual, physical objects, entered into the court proceeding as exhibits.
These are two of the most common types of evidence. Other types of evidence for an evidence based trial include documentation, and the testimony of expert witnesses. There are many rules of evidence which concern and control the use of evidence within an evidence based trial, so as to prevent the introduction of evidence which is not relevant to the trial, and which might be ultimately manipulative and/or deceptive.
One of the most important types of evidence to keep in consideration for an evidence based trial is circumstantial evidence. The rules of evidence are often particularly complex with regard to circumstantial evidence. Circumstantial evidence is considered to be evidence of an indirect nature, where the evidence in question does not directly prove anything that the defendant did or did not do, but it provides a likely, logical inference of the actions taken by the defendant.
Circumstantial evidence might, for example, include evidence that the defendant lied at some point, as the lie does not prove that the defendant committed a crime, but it does prove that the defendant is at least acting as if he or she might know he or she is guilty.